Countries in the EU that Permit Dual Citizenship 

Discover the advantages of holding dual citizenship in EU nations and uncover the freedom to live, work, and travel in multiple countries.

Explore the advantages of dual citizenship in European countries, including visa-free travel, business opportunities, quality of life, education prospects, tax advantages, and more. Discover how Residency by Investment programmes can enhance your global opportunities, security, and lifestyle. 

Numerous European nations provide Residency by Investment (RBI) programmes for investors interested in obtaining citizenship opportunities within the region.  

Dual citizenship

Dual citizenship, also known as dual nationality, refers to the legal status of an individual who is recognised as a citizen of two countries simultaneously.

This unique status allows individuals to enjoy the benefits and privileges of citizenship in both countries, such as the right to live, work, vote, and access social services. Dual citizenship offers individuals opportunities for increased mobility, expanded rights, and increased cultural connections. Embracing dual citizenship can open doors to a world of possibilities and provide a sense of belonging to multiple nations.

Residency by Investment

These RBI programmes, also known as Golden Residency Permits, offer investors various options to pursue alternative citizenship goals.  

Each European RBI country has distinct regulations governing business opportunities for investors who choose to invest in the host nation. 

There are specific investment criteria that applicants must meet to qualify for residency.  

These investments often include purchasing real estate, investing in local businesses, government bonds, or contributing to specific sectors of the host country’s economy. 

RBI programmes typically allow non-EU citizens to obtain temporary or permanent residency in exchange for making qualifying investments in the host country. 

Depending on the RBI programme selected, residency permits may be renewable, typically subject to the continued maintenance of the investment.  

While these RBI programmes offer residency, they do not necessarily lead to citizenship directly. 

However, in some cases, long-term residency may eventually lead to eligibility for citizenship through naturalisation, subject to meeting additional criteria such as residency duration and language proficiency. 

EU countries that allow dual citizenship

Listed below are several European countries offering alternative citizenship options, enabling investors to reside, work, and travel across the continent: 

Malta Individual Investor Programme (IIP) 

This pioneering programme grants citizenship through naturalisation to investors and their families, contributing to Malta’s economic growth. 

Portugal Golden Residency Permit Programme 

Operational since October 2012, this programme is appealing to non-European citizens seeking freedom to live, work, and travel within Portugal and the Schengen Area.  

It presents investment prospects in manufacturing, tourism, and green energy. 

Greece RBI Programme  

Investors and their families can attain permanent residence status in Greece through this programme, enjoying its Mediterranean climate, vibrant cities, and hospitality. 

Spain Golden Residency Programme 

Investors can acquire residency permits, which allow them to live and work in Spain. Spain’s Golden Residency Permit does not lead directly to citizenship but provides a pathway to long-term residency. 

The residency permit is initially granted for two years and can be renewed every five years, provided the investment is maintained. 

Switzerland Lump-Sum Taxation 

While Switzerland does not have a traditional RBI programme, it offers Lump-Sum Taxation as an alternative for residency. It emphasises fiscal considerations over investment-based residency. 

Advantages of Dual European Citizenship

Global Mobility: Citizenship facilitates hassle-free travel across the Schengen Area, aiding business connections and leisure travel. 

Economic Opportunities: European countries offer high-quality living standards across various sectors, including healthcare, education, and utilities. 

Healthcare Benefits: Access to comprehensive healthcare systems ensures well-being for citizens and their families. 

Business Opportunities: Citizenship opens doors for business establishment and operation within the EU, enhancing market access and partnerships. 

Educational Access: European citizenship provides access to renowned educational institutions and scholarships, benefiting families with children. 

Tax Benefits: Some countries offer favourable tax regimes, potentially reducing tax burdens on various forms of income and wealth. 

Real Estate Investment: While Portugal has discontinued its real estate investment option, other countries like Malta, Greece, and Spain still offer this avenue. 

Retirement Planning: European citizenship provides retirees with the option to settle in desirable locations with favourable climates and healthcare. 

Cultural Enrichment: Immersion in diverse cultures and traditions fosters a sense of belonging for citizens and their families. 

Security and Stability: European countries offer political and social stability, providing a secure environment for investors and their families.