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Which countries offer citizenship by investment?

Being a dual citizen offers more benefits than you might think. From family reunification and global mobility, to enhanced security and increased economic opportunities, there are so many reasons to get a second passport. As such, it’s no surprise that more and more people are interested in citizenship by investment programmes, which allow individuals to obtain second citizenship in exchange for an investment — typically in the form of real estate or a government fund. But in which countries can you get citizenship by investment? Allow us to take you through some of the best around.

Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua and Barbuda is a Caribbean country consisting of two namesake islands and multiple smaller ones. It is renowned for its reef-lined beaches (including one pink beach), rainforests and resorts, and welcomed over 180,000 tourists the year before the pandemic. Antigua and Barbuda is also economically and politically stable, with low crime rates.

The nation’s citizenship by investment programme has been going since 2013 and has a minimum investment amount of $100,000. Applications take around 180 days to be processed, and you must reside there for at least five days in order to receive citizenship.

Investment options

To gain Antigua and Barbuda citizenship through the programme, there are four options.

1.The National Development Fund
The non-profit National Development Fund finances government projects, public-private partnerships, and other charitable investments in the country.

2.Real estate
Going down the real estate route involves a minimum investment of $200,000, with applicants also having to commit to holding the property for at least five years.

3.Business investment
To invest in a business, you must put down at least $1.5 million as an individual investor or $5 million with a partner, with the business needing to have been pre-approved by The Cabinet of Antigua and Barbuda.

4.University of West Indies Fund
This fund finances the institution’s fourth landed campus in Antigua and Barbuda, and is available to families of at least six. It has a minimum investment amount of $150,000.

Grenada

Grenada is a small island-nation in the Caribbean comprising one main island and several smaller ones. It is known as the “Spice Isle” thanks to its long history as an exporter of spices including nutmeg, turmeric and ginger. Grenada also boasts beautiful beaches, vibrant coastal towns and attractions like Fort George and Fort Frederick.

The country’s citizenship by investment programme started in 2013 and has a minimum investment amount of $150,000. You can expect to wait around 90 days for your application to be processed, and there is no residency requirement.

Investment options

Applicants have two investment options when buying Grenadian citizenship:

1. The National Transformation Fund
The National Transformation Fund (NTF) has a minimum investment of $150,000, with funds going towards transforming the country’s economy.

2. Real estate
This route has a minimum investment amount of £220,00, and applicants need to hold the property for at least five years after receiving citizenship.

Dominica

Nicknamed “The Nature Island of the Caribbean”, Dominica’s moniker tells you all you need to know about this beautiful country. From waterfalls and volcanoes, to beaches and rainforests, Dominica truly has it all nature-wise. The country also has an affordable cost of living, free healthcare and a rapidly growing economy.

Dominica’s citizenship by investment programme was launched in 1993 and has been ranked as the world’s best by the CBI Index for six years running. Applications take around 90 days to be processed, and there is no residency requirement.

Investment options

Dominica’s citizenship by investment programme has two investment options.

1. The Economic Diversification Fund
This involves a minimum investment of $100,000 in a fund that goes towards socio-economic initiatives in Dominica.

2. Real estate
Applicants are required to purchase a government-approved real estate property for a minimum of $200,000, and must hold it for at least three years.

Saint Lucia

Saint Lucia is an Eastern Caribbean island-nation famous for its Piton mountains. Aside from hiking opportunities, you’ll also find chocolate plantations, historical forts and pristine white beaches there, with the country welcoming just under 220,000 tourists the year before the pandemic. In addition, Saint Lucia boasts a diverse economy and stable democracy.

The country’s citizenship by investment programme was launched in 2016, and has a minimum investment of $100,000. There is no residency requirement, and applicants can expect the whole process to take around 90 days.

Investment options

The programme’s four investment options are.

1. The National Economic Fund
The National Economic Fund (NEF) funds government-sponsored projects on the island.

2. Real estate
Applicants can also gain citizenship by investing in government-approved property worth at least $300,000.

3. Enterprise project
The next option is a minimum $3.5 million investment in a pre-approved enterprise project that creates at least three permanent jobs.

4. Government bonds
Applicants may decide to invest in government bonds to obtain citizenship. They must contribute at least $250,000 as a sole applicant.

Saint Kitts and Nevis

The next country on our list is Saint Kitts and Nevis, another Caribbean island-nation. Situated between Anguilla and Montserrat, it features pristine beaches, wondrous volcanoes and beguiling rainforests. Saint Kitts and Nevis has a population of over 52,000, with an economy reliant on tourism, export-oriented manufacturing, and offshore banking.

The country’s citizenship by investment programme is the world’s oldest, having been launched all the way back in 1984. It also has a guaranteed fast-track route to citizenship, known as the Accelerated Application Process (AAP), which takes around 60 days to complete. Otherwise, you’re looking at about three months for your application to be accepted. The programme has no residency requirement.

Investment options

Saint Kitts and Nevis’s citizenship by investment programme has four investment options.

1. The Sustainable Growth Fund
Requiring a minimum investment of $150,000, the funds here go towards supporting sustainable growth initiatives in the country.

2. Real estate
This route involves investing in government-approved real estate, with independent investors needing to make a contribution of at least $400,000 and hold the property for a minimum of five years.

3. Private home
Until November 2022, investors can gain Saint Kitts and Nevis citizenship by buying a private home worth at least $400,000.

4. Alternative investment
The final option involves placing an investment in the escrow account of an approved infrastructural project or other approved development project. How much you need to invest depends on whether the project is to be eventually owned by the state (US$175,000) or by a private entity (US$200,000).

Turkey

Turkey is a transcontinental country straddling Europe and Asia known for its bustling cities, fascinating history, jaw-dropping landscapes and coastal delight. It’s therefore no surprise it’s among the world’s most visited countries, welcoming 45 million people in 2019. Turkey’s economy is also within the world’s top 25, with its main industries including manufacturing, tourism and agriculture.

The country’s citizenship by investment programme was launched in 2017, and has a minimum investment amount of $400,000. Applications take between three to six months to complete, with no requirement to reside in Turkey.

Investment options

Turkey’s programme has five investment options, which are:

1. Real estate
Applicants need to buy property that’s recognised by the Ministry of Environment and Urbanisation, and is worth at least $400,000. They must also hold it for at least three years.

2. Deposit in a Turkish bank
The next option involves making a minimum $500,000 investment in a Turkish bank that is recognised by the Council of Bank Audit and Regulation, and holding the deposit for at least three years.

3. Government bonds
Those wanting Turkish citizenship can buy government bonds worth at least $500,000. These must be recognised by the Ministry of Treasury and Finance, and need to be held for three years or more.

4. Fixed capital
The fourth option involves investing $500,000 in fixed capital that’s acknowledged by the Ministry of Industry and Technology.

5. Job creation
Applicants can get Turkish citizenship by creating 50 jobs in Turkey, which must be acknowledged by the Ministry of Family, Labour, and Social Security.